Ideas and revolutions: the origions of the 2011 and 2013 revolutions in Egypt
The subject of this research will be ideas and the role ideas play in driving political motivations and actions, such as those that led to the 2011 and the 2013 revolutions in Egypt. I will answer the question of what brought about the 2011 and 2013 revolutions.
Current research doesn't adequately explain the revolution. The prevailing explanations reduce the phenomenon to factors such as economic hardship or social media abundance as the main drivers of the revolution. I will show how such explanations lack sufficient empirical evidence, are refutable or are insufficient. Explanations that emphasize the role of actors such as the Egyptian military or the Muslim Brotherhood feature similar problems. International Relations theory practically ignores the subject.
Due to the limitations of the existing academic literature, this research will examine a new hypothesis that the origins of the revolution in Egypt are to be found in ideational factors. These factors of universal ideas associated with liberalism and democracy have been internalized in Egypt since the end of the "Cold War" and have transformed the character of Egyptian society, eroded the legitimacy of Mubarak and paved the way for the revolutions.
I will apply tools from the international relations’ constructivist school to perform a qualitative analysis of the ideational changes in Egypt. The contribution of this research will be to provide a new explanation for the Egyptian revolutions as well as, by extension, for the overall phenomenon of revolutions. I will also contribute to the debate regarding the explanatory power of constructivism.